Simulation In Nursing Education

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A number of studies and theories have addressed the issue of simulation in nursing education, and especially how learning is being affected by the use of simulation in teaching. In published and unpublished materials, several authors have examined the different dimensions through which learning can be enhanced by the use of simulation. Constructivism Constructivism places the learner in an active role rebuilding their knowledge based on new experiences. Constructism is a theory that permits learners to be actively involved in the learning process Delgarno (2001) cited three major principles that guide constructivist learning: According to Delgarno (2001), three major principles directs this form of learning which are as follows: • Each person…show more content…
The basis for much thought on why experiential learning in patient simulation is a viable educational tool can be related to John Dewey. As Hammond (2004) summarized from Dewey’s 1938 book Experience and Education, Dewey “outlined four key concepts of learning: experience, democracy, continuity, and interaction. His premise was that education took place through interplay between objective and internal conditions, and that ‘all genuine education comes through experience.’ Expertise can only be gained by sustained practice over a period of time (p. 235).” Hytten (2000) noted, “Dewey’s attitude toward education…is an experiential one. As a pragmatist, he wants us to test out our ideas in practice, so that we can see their consequences in action and modify them in order to bring about better results (p. 459).” She also discussed Dewey’s Laboratory School as a place where teachers could experiment with new ideas and see concepts put into practice. While real teaching with real students took place in…show more content…
Experiential knowledge requires a greater personal relationship with the material to be known. Experiential knowledge adds another dimension to the material or subject that makes for a more complete knowledge. Translating Burnard’s thoughts into the simulation arena, experiential knowledge would be related to the metacognitive abilities of the students. It also requires reflection in order to build on the experience. Burnard referred to the works of Pablo Freire and the concept of praxis. As defined by Freire, praxis is “reflection and action upon the world in order to transform it (Freire, 2003, p. 51).” This concept of reflection as a means of improving performance is a oft repeated item in the simulation literature (Bond et al., 2004; Dannefer & Henson, 2004; Flanagan et al., 2004; J. A. Gordon et al., 2004; Kneebone et al., 2002; McMahon et al., 2005; S. W. Roberts & McCowan, 2004; Watterson et al., 2000). The concept of reflection on experience as a means of improving knowledge and performance is not a new concept to education in general. John Dewey made these observations about experience and reflection in 1916: When we experience something we act upon it, we do something with it; then we

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