Saxitoxin In Food

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Seafood is a significant proportion that contributes of the world food supply. Although it is an important and popular food source, it may cause food poisoning that produced by chemical toxin in seafood. Saxitoxin is ones of the toxins that found from seafood mostly shellfish, and either it can be cured or not. It is a types of neurotoxic poisons formed naturally by certain types of planktonic algae. The concentration of the toxin can be higher as much as 10 mg of saxitoxin per 100 g of mussel flesh. Saxitoxin is considered an active chemical related with disease known as Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) that can lead to death. According to Samantha Faber (2012), saxitoxin is a potent marine biotoxin and it was detected since 1957. It is…show more content…
Iniatially it was observed the Alaska butter clam Saxidomus giganteus that maintain it toxicity for a long period of time. Finally, the poison is purified from these clams collected and named it after its Latin name ‘saxitoxin’. The mouse bioassays method is introduced in the 1950s for food safety in USA laboratories. Later, the full structure clarification and saxitoxin composition is accomplished in the 1960s and 1970s. During 1970s and 1980s, the researcher discovers that saxitoxin is not the only one alkaloid involve in PSP (Vale,…show more content…
According to Micheli (2002), the lethal dose of the saxitoxin is LD50 9 µg kg-1. PSP causes dose dependent perioral numbness or tingling sensations and progressive muscular paralysis in human. It also can caused death through respiratory failure. Respiratory failure and death can occur from paralysis within 2 to 12 hours if the cases are untreated. There is no cure as most human intoxications are non-lethal. In the European Union and the Food and Drug Administration, the maximum tolerance levels are 40-80 µg PSP per 100 g edible portion of fresh, frozen, or tinned shellfish. According to Kellmann (2008), saxitoxin is the parent compound of more than 30 naturally occurring similarity. It is produced by complex and unique biosynthetic pathway. It involves reaction that exceptional in other metabolic pathway. It also includes condensation of amino acid to a carboxylic acid, aminidino transfer, unconventional heterocyclization, and

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