Title: Intoxication of Saxitoxin and its detection in bivalve shellfish
1. Background and Introduction
Saxitoxin is one type toxin of the Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP)， which is a highly poisonous. There is lots of PSP toxins outbreak in Hong Kong. According the Centre of Health Protection (CHP) reported, there were 42 cases of PSP in 2005 and affected 70 people, 3 cases of PSP in 2006 and affected 5 people and 5 cases of PSP in 2007 (as of 6 Jun 2007 ) and affected 9 people.  The PSP toxins would be block sodium channels and effect the mainly neurological. The onset time is usually within minutes to hours after consumed the bivalve shellfish. There is mild symptom of poisoning including tingling, numbness, headache, dizziness and…show more content… For seafood industry, the saxitoxin is a prohibition substance. There are usually found in seafood such as oysters, scallops, mussel, etc. Certain species of microscopic algae can produce PSP toxins. Under the favorable environment conditions, microscopic algae can rapidly multiplication that cause the algal blooms, also call red tide because the dense accumulation of algae cause the seawater become a red color. The bivalve shellfish such as oysters, scallops, mussel contaminated with toxin in seawater and even death may occur. Human thought to consume contaminated bivalve shellfish cause poisoning. Human cannot eliminate saxitoxin by themselves. If the symptoms of the PSP toxins occur after the consumed the bivalve shellfish, must be found the doctor for help hurriedly. However, there are some methods to reduct the saxitoxin poisoning. For example, to remove the viscera and gonads of bivalve shellfish before the cooking, do not consume too much bivalve shellfish in one of meal, avoid consuming the liquid which the after cook bivalve shellfish residue, it is because the saxitoxin dissolves in water easily. The mild poisoning of saxitoxin that oral intake 144 to 1660 mg STX eq/person. The lethal dosage always between 456 to…show more content… According to the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), there are some components of HPLC instrument. Including solvent treatment system, pumping system, sample injection system, column and detector. The fluorescence detector RF-2000 would be used for detect the saxitoxin. The detector with wavelength of excitation at 340 nm and the wavelength of emission at 400 nm. The C18 column (150 ˆ 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) was used. There are two phases to consist the elutent, one (A phase) is ammonium formate and the concentration equal to 0.1 M (5% acetonitrile), other one (B phase) s ammonium formate and the concentration equal to 0.1 M. The flow rate of column was 2 mL/min. The condition of gradient are keep A phase 0% for 1 minute, in 4 minutes was increase to 5%, in 5 minutes was increase to 5% to 70% and hold for 2 minutes, return to 0% of A phase and re-equilibrate for 5 min, and the optimal temperature of column is 25 ̋C.