Review on Particulate emission in diesel engines.
Characterization of particulate matter emissions
Particulate matter emitted from diesel engine consist of both volatile and non volatile fraction. Kleeman et al after analyzing the motor vehicle emissions concluded the composition of organic and elemental carbon, dependent on the size of particle emitted. Ion nucleation was not found to be a major mechanism in diesel engine exhaust. Since the nucleation mode particles are formed from condenstion of volatile hc and sulfuric acid [kittelson 2006], shell like structure is formed Kwon et al and Sakurai et al. reported large volatile fraction in smaller sized particles using TDMA . Kwon et al further reported the decreae in…show more content… At higher loads amount of fuel injected and combustion tempratures are higher Harris et al. (2001). Since, Temperatures, mean gas temperature and amount of fuel injected is related to the UHC and gaseous fraction emitted condenses to form volatile fraction (Abdul-Khalek et al. 1999; Collings and Graskow 2000; Shi and Harrison 1999; Vouitsis et al. 2005) different techniques are used.  used a thermodesorber along with DMA, TOEM and LPI analyzed the shrinkage in size of particles during heating are used. At high loads there was very less shrinkage in the size as compared to the lower loads concluding less volatile fraction at lower loads.Low loads leads to more unburnt hydrocarbons because of lower incylinder temperatures which condense and form volatile fraction ,,[59-.  found out that the structure and graphetization of the nano-particles is also affected by the load conditions.Core shell structure was common at high loads while disordered structure was more common at low engine loads due to lower in cylinder temperature and long combustion duration. Lee et al and Zhu et al on investigation of nano particles found amorphous structure at lower loads while it was like graphite at higher