Mitochondria Lab Report

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Biology Passage: For years, scientists have theorized that mitochondria evolved from aerobic heterotrophic bacteria undergo symbiosis with primitive eukaryotic anaerobes. Bacteria and mitochondria are structurally and functionally similar in that they are roughly the same size, reproduce by similar means and contain histone-bound DNA. They also contain the tRNAs and ribosomes needed for translation and transcription, and also show some rRNA base sequencing similarities. Additionally, the interior membranes of mitochondria have electron transport systems and enzymes comparable to those on the plasma membranes of bacteria. Electron transport in mitochondria and bacteria is achieved by using three large protein complexes, composed of several polypeptides…show more content…
C) Yes, the transfer of genes from symbionts to the eukaryotic nucleus could have occurred. D) Yes, bacteria is unimportant because the many similarities between bacteria and mitochondria provide sufficient evidence in favor of the passage. EXPLANATION: Endosymbiosis is accepted today as a legitimate theory, as it proves that mitochondrial proteins are produced in the cytoplasm. The lateral transfer of genes from one genome to another is prevalent among living organisms. It would have been relatively easy for mitochondrial genes to be attained by the host cell nucleus and then withdraw from the mitochondrial genome. This exchange would have resulted in a net gain in efficiency for the complex organism, thus (C) is the most viable answer. 3. An artificial pathway for proton movement is created by inserting gramicidin into membranes. Referring back to Figure 1, if mitochondria are treated with gramicidin, the ATP synthesis rate would most likely: A) Not be altered, because sufficient protons will remain between the membranes to generate ATP. B) Decrease, because the proton gradient will rapidly reach

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