Created in 1956 by psychologist Dr Benjamin Bloom, his taxonomy of educational objectives suggests that there is a hierarchy of forms of knowledge and engagement with new learning. The hierarchy indicates not only levels of cognitive working, but also different ways – or learning styles – in which this may be evidenced (Armstrong, 2017, paras. 1-6).
The levels (from most basic to most complex) are: remembering (recognition and recall of learning); understanding (classifying and comparing information); applying (implementing new learning); analysing (organisation and differentiation of new ideas and skills); evaluating (checking and offering constructive criticism); and creating (planning and producing new work based on the fresh learning)…show more content… First published in 1984, Kolb’s own learning styles schema offers both four types of learner, and proposes a cyclic approach to learning which involves a reflective and experiential process (Bates, 2015, pp.122-126).
Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) observes there are four types of learner and of learning: concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualisation, and active experimentation (Kolb and Kolb, 2013, pp.8-9). Kolb suggests that these four elements combine to not only indicate a learning styles preference, but a route through a learning cycle which engages with each of these four aspects. For example, a concrete experience (such as a lesson with new theoretical content) generates material for the learner to reflect upon (and to accommodate with their existing knowledge, skills and experiences) which leads to the generation of new ideas in the abstract conceptualisation phase; this is then investigated through active experimentation (Kolb and Kolb, 2013, pp.8-9). This provides a concrete experience, and to the cycle can begin again. This approach suggests how Kolb – and by extension, Honey and Mumford – may be accommodated within a single lesson, so providing…show more content… 1-2).
Their schema, developed in 1986 and inspired by Kolb’s model, is again diagnosable via questionnaire, suggesting that there are four types of