Implicit Instruction Essay

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2.1. Theoretical background 2.1.2. Explicit vs. Implicit instruction Many study have been done to compare the effectiveness of different teaching approaches of focus on form pragmatic instruction. Mast of them have selected two types of implicit and explicit pedagogical intervention. The distinction between explicit and implicit teaching has been addressed by Doughty (2003). According to her, explicit teaching involves directing learners' attention towards the target forms with the aim of discussing those forms. In contrast, an implicit pedagogical approach aims to attract the learners' attention while avoiding any type of metalinguistic explanation and minimizing the interruption of the communicative situation. In relation to the effect of different teaching approaches to pragmatic learning, the advantage of the planned and explicit teaching condition over the implicit one, was reported Rose and Ng K wai-Fun (2001) and Takahashi (2001). The authors…show more content…
Consciousness-raising According to Eckerth (2008), consciousness-raising (C-R) is an instruction approach which persuades learners to concentrate on language forms believing that an awareness of forms is indirectly related to language acquisition. They help learners to achieve explicit knowledge about these linguistic features through problem solving activities. Shak and Gardener (2008) studied young learners' attitudes toward different form-focused activities including C-R tasks. They investigated C-R with 78 children from three intact classes in Brunei who were learning English as a foreign language. Results of an attitude questionnaire showed that while there was a general trend of positive attitudes among children towards C-R tasks, variation in task preference existed mainly with respect to three main sources of influence. As a result, they suggested that to improve children L2 proficiency, C-R tasks should be supplemented with sufficient contextual support to guarantee a sense of accomplishment in

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