Socio Economic Philosophy of Islam (Term Project)
Topic: Imam Al Mawardi’s Theory of State (Theory of Caliphate)
Imam Mawardi was born in Basra in 972 A.D. He studied fiqh under Abu al-Wahid al-Simari in Baghdad and produced many of his workings which include Al-Ahkam al-Sultania w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyya, Kitab Nasihat al-Mulk, Kitab Aadab al-Dunya w'al-Din, Qanun al-Wazarah, Personas of the Prophethood and other of his works that are undiscovered yet. He was appointed to the post of Qazi in Baghdad, also he served as diplomat on part of Caliph al-Qaim on 4 instances and on behalf of Caliph al- Qadir on one instance. He is one of the most prominent Islamic philosophers whose works are mainly based on Islamic politico-religious theory of state that modulates the lives of people in a Muslim community to the tiniest detail.
Theory of State
Imam Mawardi present his theory of state within the bounds of Sharia (Islamic law) as he is a muslim philosopher and faqih. He presents his theory of Caliphate/Immamat as the primary need of Shariah and the one every muslim should crave to establish. The establishment of Caliphate is necessary as Quran itself enforces the establishment of this institution in many of its verses including the verse:
“Obey Allah, obey the prophet (PBUH) and the ruler…show more content… These characteristics include that the imam should be a free adult male, strong charactered, prevailer of justice, frugal, brave and courageous to fight wars. A Caliph according to Al Mawardi should be mentally, physically and sensually fit and should have deep insight. He must be a Momin (obedient to divine law) with good knowledge of fiqh and should be liked by a majority of people. According to Al Mawardi, an imam can be any person unless he fits into aforementioned qualifications and unless he is a momin but it is preferable that the caliph is from