Hydropower Plant Lab Report

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Hydropower plants convert potential energy stored in a dam to kinetic energy via the turbine. The turbine is mechanically coupled to the generator through a rotating shaft. Hence the turbine starts to spin by the water motion and transforms its kinetic energy into mechanical energy. The generator in its turn converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy (electricity). Figure 1, A typical hydropower plant. The amount of electricity produced is dependent on the water flowing through the waterways and the head (the height difference from the free surface of the dam and the tail water). The electrical power produced is calculated from the following equation: P =ηρgQH . where P is the output power in kilowatts, η is the overall efficiency,…show more content…
The runner of a reaction turbine is similar in design, but not identical to a pump impeller. An example of an impulse turbine is the Pelton turbine being well suited for large heads. The two main reaction turbines being the Kaplan and Francis turbine of which the former is of interest in this work, suited for low and medium heads. The Kaplan turbine is also called axial turbine, since the entrance and exit of the runner is along the turbine shaft. One thing that is unique for the Kaplan turbine is the possibility to rotate the runner blades in order to run the turbine at different operational…show more content…
Some powerplants are located on rivers, streams, and canals, but for a reliable water supply, dams are needed. Dams store water for later release for such purposes as irrigation, domestic and industrial use, and power generation. The reservoir acts much like a battery, storing water to be released as needed to generate power. The dam creates a head or height from which water flows. A pipe (penstock) carries the water from the reservoir to the turbine. The fast-moving water pushes the turbine blades, something like a pinwheel in the wind. The waters force on the turbine blades turns the rotor, the moving part of the electric generator. When coils of wire on the rotor sweep past the generator=s stationary coil (stator), electricity is produced. This concept was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831 when he found that electricity could be generated by rotating magnets within copper coils. When the water has completed its task, it flows on unchanged to serve other needs. Transmitting Power Once the electricity is produced, it must be delivered to where it is needed -- our homes, schools, offices, factories, etc. Dams are often in remote locations and power must be transmitted over some distance to its

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