The term of crowding and density were used more or less interchangeably until Daniel Stokols told a difference, now generally accepted (Gifford, 2002). Stokols (1972) only applies density in a physical meaning and he defines it as the number of people in a unit of space. According to him density is a necessary condition for crowding, but it is not good enough for density. There is an idea called understood density; it means density is feels by the person and it is on the basis of their own perception (Gifford, 2002).
Many definitions of crowding and density exist in published literature. Normally discussion about crowding is always related with the density, personal space and territoriality. Crowding is referred to as the ratio of people to space, which can be fairly and without emotion created in term of density such as the number of people in a given area (Evan et al., 1989; Fischer et al., 1975). It was not until the development work by Stokol in 1972 that the difference between density and crowding was fully recognized.
Density can be described as the physical condition of having limited space available for the given number of individuals present in the area. It is considered as a necessary but not sufficient condition for crowding. Crowding is subjective, psychological state in which one expects for space goes beyond the available supply…show more content… This indicator is evaluated based on the percent of total capacity use during average and peak hours. Fourth indicator is reaction to crowding. It is evaluated based on the percentage of tourists who believe that the destination is too crowded. Other than that, it is evaluate by perception local residents who believe the site is too crowded. Last but not least, perceived crowding is measured by local satisfaction. It is involve that number of complaint by local residents and local satisfaction with tourism with specific component of