Classical Conditioning Vs Operant Conditioning

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Operant conditioning is one of the two forms of associative learning. The second form of associative learning is classical conditioning. "Associative learning occurs when an organism makes connections between stimuli or events that occur together in the environment" (Speilman, 2014). Therefore, operant conditioning is when "organisms learn to associate a behavior and its consequence" (Spielman, 2014). Operant conditioning can be divided into two types of methods: reinforcement and punishment. Both methods can be enforced in either a positive or negative manner. Positive means something is being added, and negative means something is being taken away. These methods were founded by B.F. Skinner, he believed "behavior is motivated by the consequences…show more content…
This method differs from punishment because reinforcement, positive or negative increases a behavior. According to the Psychology textbook published by OpenStax, "in, positive reinforcement a desirable stimulus is added to increase a behavior." For example, a daughter cleans up the table after dinner and washes the dishes and her mother thanks her and lets her know she did a good job. This reinforcement would be considered a secondary reinforcer, "no inherent value and only has reinforcing qualities when linked with a primary reinforcer" (Spielman, 2014) An example of a primary reinforcer, is a mother getting a new video game for her son when he gets good grades and comments from the teacher. "Primary reinforcers are reinforcers that have innate reinforcing qualities" (Spielman, 2014). Along with positive reinforcement, there is negative reinforcement. "In negative reinforcement, an undesirable stimulus is removed in order to…show more content…
more efficient, 'less fraught with complexities and uncertainties, and better suited to the development of successful learning than are punishment procedures" (Otto, 1976). This method works best with children, because they learn when they act appropriate or right they are praised. Instead of receiving a punishment when they act wrong or inappropriately, and can become afraid of the punisher (Spielman, 2014). Many studies have been done to prove positive reinforcement's effectiveness. Such as, Wesley C. Becker's guide to reducing behavior problems. In this study, Becker examined two problematic children from five different classes. He instructed the teacher to only reinforce positive behavior such as thanking the student, and to ignore the disruptions, disrespect and ignoring. After five weeks, the ten children improved their behavior. The unpleasant behavior dropped from 62.13 percent to 29.19 percent. The teachers involved made comments like, "Albert has become a delightful child and an enthusiastic member of our class who feels his ideas are accepted and have merit" (Becker, 1969). Positive reinforcement has demonstrated to be the most effective method of operant

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