Child Labor In The Philippines Summary

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It was previously discussed in class that the International Labor Organization (hereinafter “ILO”) adopted the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights in June 1998. This declaration set forth four (4) core labor principles, which are the following: “(1) freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining; (2) the elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labor; (3) the effective abolition of child labor; and (4) the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.” This paper will focus mainly on the elimination of child labor and in assessing the child labor laws in the Philippines. This labor standard allows the distinction whether an act is acceptable or not…show more content…
In the international context, there is no universal definition provided for the “child”, considering the difference in culture and society of the States. Nonetheless, in the Philippine jurisdiction, “child” is defined as “person below eighteen (18) years of age or those over but are unable to fully take care of themselves or protect themselves from abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation or discrimination because of a physical or mental disability or condition.” As for the term “child labor,” there is no international legal document containing the specific definition of the same. Nevertheless, the ILO – International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labor (hereinafter “ILO-IPEC”) defined “child labor” as the “work that deprives children of their childhood, their potential and their dignity, and that is harmful to physical and mental development.” However, it is important to note that not all kinds of labor are considered child labor. The term excludes the kinds of work which do not affect their health and personal development and those which do not interfere with their education, including doing household chores, assisting family business and the…show more content…
138 mandates the ratifying States to ensure “effective abolition of child labor and to raise progressively the minimum age for the admission to employment or work to a level consistent with the fullest physical and mental development of young persons.” It states therein that for developing countries, the minimum age shall be fourteen (14) years old. However, the Convention also provides for a classification of works, whether it is hazardous or light. A work is hazardous if it is likely to endanger health, safety, and morals of the child, which then the minimum age applicable shall be eighteen (18) years old. Meanwhile, a work shall be considered light if it is: “(a) not likely to be harmful to their health and development; and (b) not such as to prejudice their attendance at school, their participation in vocational orientation or training programmes approved by the competent authority or their capacity to benefit from the instruction received.” For the light works, the ratifying States is permitted to regulate the works of children ranging from twelve (12) to fifteen (15) years old. Nevertheless, the minimum age shall be inapplicable when the work is part of the child’s education or training, which has been approved by competent

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