Chicken Feather Research Paper

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Chicken feather (density almost equivalence to 0.8 g/cm3) with good thermal and acoustic insulating properties (Bullions et al., 2006) consists of keratin macromolecules (91%) with an average molecular weight of 10kDa (Kock, 2006; Woodin, 1954; Wrzes´niewska-Tosik &Adamiec, 2007). The keratin macromolecules of feather, also known as hard protein, consist of 14 amino acids (Arai, Takahashi et al.,1983) and can have two conformations known as alpha and beta (Bonser &Dawson, 1999). Chicken feather consists of a central shaft (rachis), barb and barbules (Reddy &Yang, 2007; Streit & Heidrich, 2002). Feathers are among the most complex integumentary appendages found in vertebrates and are formed in tiny follicles in the epidermis, or outer skin…show more content…
Keratin protein is ubiquitous in most vertebrates and invertebrates and has several important cellular and extra-cellular functions that are related to protection and survival. It is the most important biopolymer encountered in animals after collagen. Over 90% of the dry weight of hair are proteins called keratins, which have a high disulfide content, from the amino acid cysteine. Feathers have similar keratins and are extremely resistant to protein digestive enzymes. Different parts of the feather have different cysteine levels, leading to harder or softer material. Figure 1.3: Disulfide bond between amino acids Cysteine The keratin found in feather is called “hard” keratin and it is quite resilient and does not dissolve in water. Keratin is insoluble protein and it is made from eighteen amino acids. Cysteine is the most abundant of these amino acids which strengthen the hair. Cysteine Serine Glutamic Acid Threonine Glycine…show more content…
They are essential nutrient for the growth and repair of muscles, tendons, bone, hair, skin, eyes and other tissues is proven since a very long time. Lacking of the enzymes and hormones needed for metabolism, digestion and other important processes without protein. Protein is also important for development and growth in children, teens, and pregnant women. Natural proteins are proteins purified from natural sources. There are three types of protein and it can be classified as: Natural Proteins: On hydrolysis they yield only the amino acids and occasional small carbohydrate compounds. Examples are: albumins, globulins, glutelins, albuminoids, histones and protamines. Conjugated Proteins: These are natural proteins combined with some non-protein material in the body. Examples are: nucleoproteins, glycoproteins, phosphoproteins, haemoglobins and lecithoproteins Derived Proteins: These are proteins derived from natural or conjugated proteins by physical or chemical means. Examples are: denatured proteins and

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