Levetiracetam is probably a major breakthrough in the treatment of epilepsies. It is a highly effective, broad-spectrum, one of second generation AED with a unique mechanism of action.
Levetiracetam is a single enantiomer, (S)-α-ethyl-2-oxo-pyrrolidine acetamide. Its molecular formula is C8H14N2O2 and its molecular weight is 170.21. It is chemically unrelated to any of the other antiepileptic drugs. It is a white to off-white powder with a faint odor and bitter taste and highly soluble in water (104.0 g/100 mL). It is freely soluble in chloroform (65.3 g/100 mL) and in methanol (53.6 g/100 mL), soluble in ethanol (16.5 g/100 mL), sparingly soluble in acetonitrile (5.7 g/100 mL) and practically insoluble in n-hexane.
Main mechanisms of action…show more content… Its antiepileptic activity does not involve a direct interaction with any of the other AEDs. In contrast, levetiracetam has been observed to exert several atypical electrophysiological actions, including a moderate inhibition of high voltage-gated N-type Ca2+ channels, reduction of intracellular Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as suppression of GABA responses at the GABA-A receptor and glycine-gated currents by blocking its negative allosteric modulation by beta-carbolines and