Branding Vs Intangible Branding

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Branding is considered as marketing concept and it is defined as the things that are related to the product or service that helps the company to differentiate itself to other companies (Hankinson and Cowking, 1993). In term of structure, a brand consists of two elements, namely tangible branding and intangible branding, according to Czinkota and Ronkainen (2004). The tangible refers to the name of the brand when the people call particular product or service. The intangible is considered as symbol or meaning for the brand that the company want to transmit to its customers. On the other hand, Knox and Bickerton (2000) assert that a brand has three different characters, namely brand equity, brand loyalty and brand image. These factors are also…show more content…
The first stage refers to research or analysis on current branding portfolio of the company. This step comes up with the assessment of brand awareness from the customers as well as comparing it with other brands with same products and services category. After the brand performance is evaluated, the next stage is determined as brand proposition with two indicators to be evaluated, namely brand positioning and brand personality. Both of indicators are part of marketing campaign that the company is carrying. The next step in branding management process is marketing mix that is known as 4Ps marketing strategies for product, place, promotion, and price. The last but not least is communication triggers that include how a brand is called and packed with particular characteristics. The last stage is the consumer that is defined as process of communicating between the company and its customers through proper brand…show more content…
According to Sriram et al. (2007), brand loyalty is determined as state of mind of the customers whether they want to use product or service of particular brand name within a product or service category. Moreover, brand loyalty is sourced or formulated from customer loyalty with product or service. It is worth to denote that when the customers feel attached with particular product or service, they have the same feeling of using their owned brand name. Furthermore, the customers choose a product or service not only its functions and service quality but also the brand name and how the company transmit the brand meaning to the community (Subramaniam et al., 2014). The physical aspect of a brand is found in the physical service offering or the product itself, whereas the perceptual aspect is found in the physiological space and therefore the consumers mind. In this context, the marketing managers should take into account the degree of brand loyalty as the solution to sustain the product or service profitability and maintaining the customers staying with the

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