Boxer Rebellion Research Paper

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Beginning in May of 1900, the Boxer Rebellion arose from strong anti-foreign sentiments in China, which date back to increased western influence resulting from the first and second Opium Wars. The first Opium War between Britain and China erupted in 1839 over Britain’s demands for free trade, especially the importation of opium into China. Chinese resistance to Britain’s continued illegal opiate smuggling incited the second Opium War in 1856. Overall, the two wars led to a greater western presence in China with the opening of many of its ports to foreign powers. By the turn of the century, Britain, France, Russia, Japan, and Germany had all claimed territory in the empire. China’s economy was suffering, and conflicts with western missionaries became common. Resentment toward foreigners and Chinese Christians soared after they were exempted from governmental control. The creation of anti-foreign secret societies increased in popularity. The Opium Wars also resulted in the first “unequal treaties” that increased China’s oppression by foreign powers. The peasant secret society, named the Boxers United in Righteousness (Boxers) for the form of martial arts its members practiced, emerged in 1897. After the Germans captured a large portion of…show more content…
The Protocol mandated the execution, banishment, or removal of all Boxer-supporting government officials. Foreign troops obtained control of the Beijing-Tianjin corridor and launched destructive expeditions into the surrounding areas. The Chinese were required to make statues of several foreign leaders who died in the rebellion. Also, a compensation of $333 million was to be paid to the foreign powers in thirty-nine yearly installments. Each individual installment almost equaled China’s annual income. Because of the humiliating terms of the Boxer Protocol, China lost the remainder of its power and independence as a

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