potentials have been recorded in amygdala (Pollock et al., 1975), electrical stimulation of the amygdala has been reported to produce fear like behaviours in animals (Applegate et al., 1983), to mimic conditioned and unconditioned cardiac effects in rabbit heart-rate conditioning (Kapp et al., 1982) and to elicit feelings of anxiety in humans. Further studies involving stimulation of the area of ventral amygdalogufal pathway in combination with lesions of cell bodies would help clarify whether the enhancement
Operant conditioning Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning has been demonstrated by physiologist know as Ivan Pavlov (1849-1939). In the beginning of the 20th century, Ivan Pavlov was conducting a study on the digestive system of dogs where he realized peculiar patterns of dogs salivating. Initially the dogs were only salivating after seeing or smelling the food, but after repeated pairings of the whistle sound to the food, the dogs responded by starting
approach to identify the constraints, opportunities and some of possible interventions and strategies to improve the milk value chain, to contextualization the section opens with an overview of the country perspective and then narrows down the issue to study area. Introduction Ethiopia holds the largest livestock population in Africa estimated to about 52.13 million cattle, 24.2 million sheep and 22.6 million goats (CSA, 2012). The major species used for
higher, landing a man on the moon ended with triumphant words “The Eagle Has Landed” signifying the technological dominance that became the image of the race. We all know the winners, but what happened to the losers? The beginning of the race Sputnik vs. Explorer. We all know the legendary words of “This is one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.” (Neil Armstrong). The Space Race was a competition between the United States and the Soviet Union in space exploration, covering roughly
phthisis. Hippocrates clearly recognized tuberculosis and understood its clinical presentation. In the 19th centuries a novel method was proposed for the disease namely Sanatoria (an immune place). The earliest evidence of tuberculosis (TB) in man and animals is provided by bone finds- mainly fragments of vertebrae showing the gibbus typical of tuberculous Pott’s disease.
ANORECTAL ABSCESS AND FISTULA Anorectal abscesses and anal fistulas are disease processes that have their basis of understanding and treatment firmly rooted in the anatomic design of the anal canal. The potential for disastrous complications is real. Careful, thorough, and meticulous care in the diagnosis and treatment of fistulous abscesses will result in successful outcomes in most cases. Perirectal and perianal abscess are commonly encountered problems in surgical practice. Timely