The Elaboration Likelihood Model

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151). Significant information concerning the message is its division into gain-framed and loss-framed. “Messages that emphasize benefits of adopting a behavior are gain-framed; those that present the costs of not adopting the behavior are loss-framed” (Perloff, 2003, p. 195). It depends on situation and context which one is more appropriate for being used. The gain-framed message is “more effective in promoting prevention behaviors (sunscreen use, physical exercise, and use of infant car restraints)” (Perloff, 2003, p. 196). However, negative attitudes toward a particular issue might be more memorable than positive information and effectively influence “early detection behaviors, such as obtaining a mammogram, performing monthly breast self-exams,…show more content…
The Elaboration Likelihood Model The Elaboration Likelihood Model refers to the psychology and involves the process of persuasion. It studies how people’s attitudes are changing. The ELM states that persuasive messages are received in two different ways: by central and peripheral route. Although both are persuasion techniques which may bring effective results, they are different in terms of the amount of cognitive effort that receivers have to put into understanding the message (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). According to Petty and Cacioppo (1986), central route is based on the detailed and careful analysis of arguments in the persuasive messages and it “occurs when motivation and ability to scrutinize issue-relevant arguments are relatively high” (p. 131). It has people be involved in perceptual cerebration. There are certain conditions that enable receivers to actuate this mode. The first one is the aforementioned motivation. It is defined as the willingness of recipients to make an intellectual effort towards the analysis of particular message. Motivation may increase when the issue of a message is related to the personal experience of a receiver or when cognitional needs of a receiver are great (Petty & Cacioppo,…show more content…
People perceive a message in various ways, so the failure in transmission depends on the reception of a message, not on its content (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). Table 1. Central and peripheral routes to persuasion (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986; Perloff, 2003). PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION Motivation and ability to process the message Yes No Central route Peripheral route 1. The content of message: - The attractive form of the presented offer - The normative character of a message 1. The nature of message: - Order in a message (recency, primacy) - The distraction of attention 2. The structure of a message: - One- or two-sided message - Repetitions - Conclusions 2. The characteristic of source of a message: - Credibility - Evidences - Attractiveness -

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