Human Developmental Theories of Sigmund Freud and Erik Erickson
Sigmund Freud’s psychosexual theory
Australian Neurologist Sigmund Freud (1865-1939) was the founder of Psychoanalytic Theory. This is the most controversial and discredited theory in field of Psychology, which changed the way we see ourselves. From this theory he developed another influential and famous work of his, The Psychosexual Theory, in which he believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages. Furnham (2015) identifies the Five Stages of this theory, namely, oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. Each stage has specific erotogenic zone for the primary source of pleasure. Adult personality later in life depends on how a person dealt with each…show more content… He was greatly influenced by Freud and is well known for his theory of Psychosocial Development. This is a lifespan model of development, taking in 8 stages. Erikson believed that personality develops in a predetermined order, and builds upon each previous stage (Erickson's stages of development). His theory emphasizes the role of culture, society, conflicts, establishing a sense of trust in others, developing a sense of identity in society, and helping the next generation prepare for the future.
Erik Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory Stages
Stage 1: Trust versus Mistrust (birth – 18 months)
When a child is cared and needs are attended to properly, the child develops the virtue of hope. If a child is neglected, the child develops a sense of mistrust about the world (McLeod, S. A., 2013).
Stage 2: Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt (2-3 years)
At this stage children become increasingly independent. If children develop a sense of autonomy, it will emerge with the virtue of will and if they overly criticized and controlled, children are left with feelings of shame and doubt (McLeod, S. A., 2013).
Stage 3: Initiative versus Guilt (3-5