Popovic Translation Analysis

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might have been expected); and (c) a descriptive point of view (may be interpreted). What can be understood from this is that translation shifts can be found by comparing the ST with TT to see the changes the ST is undergone and examining the TT with an emphasis being laid upon the relation with its readers. Popovic views the text as one element of a system which includes the writer and the text’s literary culture. He then attributes translation shifts to the differences between “the two languages, the two authors, and the two literary systems involved” (Popovic, 1970 in Grant, 1985: 13). Popovic divides shifts into the following types: constitutive shifts, individual shifts, generic shifts, negative shifts, and topical shifts.…show more content…
Comparative Model: it involves a detailed analysis of ST and TT in order to describe microstructural shifts, i.e. within sentences, clauses, and phrases (Munday, 2000: 63). This model consists of four steps: 1) textual units from ST and TT should be chosen. Zwart calls these units “transemes”. 2) The “architranseme”, which is the invariant core of the ST transeme, is identified. 3) A comparison between transemes and architransemes is made in order to establish the relationship between them; the relationship is either synonymic or hyponymic. 4) The final step is to classify pairs of transemes according to their relationship. The architranseme is considered as a denominator between the transemes of ST and TT. Thus, if both of the transemes are synonymous with the architransemes, they are then synonymous with each other, and that means there is no shift; otherwise, there is a shift belonging to one of the following categories of shifts: modulation, modification, and mutation (Cyrus, 2009: 95,…show more content…
This happens when one of the transemes is a synonym of the architranseme and the other is a hyponym. The type of shift is considered as generalization when the source transeme is the hyponym and specification when the target transeme is the hyponym. Generalization and specification shifts can also occur at the levels of stylistics and semantics. “Depending on what is the element of disjunction between the two transemes”, these subdivisions are further subcategorized due to a difference in register (e.g. formal vs. informal), a professional element, a text-specific element (identifying e.g. a letter, joke, or fairy tale), a time element (e.g. a neologism or archaic expression), or a culture-specific element on the stylistic level, and it could be an aspectual, subjective, concrete, or intensive element on the semantic level (Cyrus, 2009:

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