Pelvic Floor Research Paper

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The pelvic floor is formed by the pelvic diaphragm which consits of muscles the levator ani and the coccygeus. It resembles like a ham-mock structure. The pelvic diaphragm separates the perineum below from the pelvis above. Pelvic Fascia and the Muscles The pelvic fascia is distributed in the extra peritoneal space of the pelvis. It covers the lateral pelvic wall and the pelvic floor called parietal pelvic fascia and also surrounding the pelvic viscera called visceral pelvic fascia. Muscles Pelvic floor muscles are described below THE LEVATOR ANI The muscle of the pelvic floor is called as the levator ani and it is divided into:- 1) Pubococcygeus Part 2) Iliococcygeus Part 3) Ischiococcygeus Part Pubococcygeus Part Origin: Anterior fiubres-…show more content…
A branch frm the inferior rectal nerve. The coccygeus is supplied by a branch derived frm 4 and 5 sacral nerves. Actions of Levators Ani and Coccygeus The 1evatores ani and cocygeus muscle closes the posterior part of the pelvic outlet. The 1evatores ani fix the perineal body and support the pelvic viscera. During coughing, sneezing, lifting and other muscular efforts, the 1evators ani and cocygei increases the intra-abdominal pressure. In micturition, defaecation and parturition, a particular pelvic outlet is opened but contraction of fibres around other openings resists an increased in intra-abdominal pressure thus prevents any prolapse through the pe1vic floor. This increase in intra-abdominal pressure is momentory in coughing and sneezing and is prolonged in yawning, micturition, defaecation and lifting heavy weights. It is most prolomged and intense in 2 stage of labour. The coccygeus pulls frwards and support coccyx, after it has been pressed backwards during defecation, parturition or…show more content…
The inferior or perineal surface is covered with anal fascia and forms the medial boundary of the ischioanal fossa. The anterior borders of the two muscles are being separated by a triangle shaped space that provides passage for the urethra and the vagina. The posterior border is free and lies against the inferior margin of cocygeus. Morphology of Pelvic Diaphragm In lower mammals, both the pub0coccygeus and the ili0coccygeus are inserted only into the coccygeal vertebrae and are respomsible for movements of the tail. With the disappearance of the tail during evolution, the muscles have been modified to form the pelvic diaphragm which supports the viscera. Such support became necessary with the adoption of the erect posture by man. In lower mammals, the levator ani arises from the pelvic brim. In man, the origin has shifted down to the side wall of the pelvis. The coccygeus muscle corresponds exactly with the sacrospinous ligament, which is a degenerated part of the ap0neurosis of this muscle. The two are inversely propotional in their development. PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLE STRENGTH TESTING Muscle strength testing of pelvic floor can be done in various ways like it can be done by observation or with the help of machines

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