CHROMOSOME: Chromosomes are thread like structure that appears inside the nucleus at the time of cell division. Each chromosome has genes that play important role in determining how a person’s body develops and functions. The possession of all these chromosomes is therefore, essential for survival.
The cells of eukaryotes contain an enormous amount of DNA. If the DNA in all of the cells of an adult human were lined up end to end it would stretch nearly 100 billion kilometres – 60 times the distance from Earth to Jupiter. Changes in the DNA occurs either due to mistake in replication or damage to the genetic message causing mutation. The mutations in somatic cells do not pass on to the offspring and so have little evolutionary consequence…show more content… Living organisms have either have n or 2n number of chromosomes. In Euploidy changes in the number of chromosomes in the living cells occur.
The condition is termed monoploidy if irregularities occur in chromosomal number result in individual having only a single basic set of chromosome.
Diploidy is a condition in which due to certain reasons the chromosomes occur as twice the haploid number.
POLYPLOIDY: Polyploidy is the condition in which euploidic organisms have multiple set of organisms 3n, 4n, or 5n or more. This phenomenon is commonly observed among plants. Among human beings polyploidy is rare and has been observed only in cancer cells.
An increase or decrease of only one or many of the chromosomes in any group of similar chromosomes is called Aneuploidy.
HYPOPLOIDY: The diploid number of chromosomes are less by one or two chromosomes, the condition is termed hypoploidy. TYPES: