MC And HIV Prevention Controversy

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The implementation of male circumcision for HIV prevention has often been and still remains a topic of controversy. Studies conducted in southern Africa have suggested that circumcised men are less likely to contract HIV compared to uncircumcised. Due to these findings health programs in Africa are suggesting that MC should be implemented into the public policy. However, there is a big debate between studies that demonstrated the contrary to the notion of MC as prevention method of HIV. These studies show that there is little evidence linked to MC and HIV prevention. Rather they see it as an unnecessary invasive practice, risky and unethical procedure, which could potentially lead to more future problems. By looking at other aspects there are…show more content…
Fink (Bell 2014, p. 554). In 1986 Fink published an article explaining how circumcision contributes in the prevention of HIV transmission, by hypothesizing that the presence of the foreskin increased the likelihood of HIV infections, as the skin of the uncircumcised men was seen to be more sensitive therefore vulnerable to small abbreviations (De Camargo 2013, p.772). Since then many others studies were conducted focusing on the relations between MC and HIV, some in support to this notions, while others reported to find inverse correlations (De Camargo 2013, p. 772). Despite evidences showing that there is little or none connection, which indicated that MC prevents HIV infections. Observational and biological studies that enforced the link between MC and HIV gained acknowledge from researches of different areas, which led to the motivation to prove that circumcision could potentially prevent HIV. This was done thought randomized clinical trials, which emphasized MC as a potentially method of HIV prevention that could be applied as an additional strategy in controlling the HIV epidemic in Africa (De Camargo 2013, p. 775). However, more research needs to be done, since it has to be taken into account that none of them were able to fully conclude their research since the trials were stopped midway due to multiple reasons. The first RCT findings were published in 2005 by Auvert, who argued that circumcised male have 60% higher protection against HIV compared to uncircumcised (Bell 2014, p.555). This study was conducted in South Africa, which included 3274 uncircumcised men, between the age of 18 and 24 from Orange Farm as well as areas outside the city of Johannesburg (Bell 2014, p.555). At the interim analysis phase, the findings were considerate to be so compelling which resulted in the failure to meet the requirements of clinical equipoise (Bell

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