The procedure taken to manufacture each type of organ varies depending on the organs intricacy. Dr. Anthony Atala (2010) stated three practical methods his team and other scientist have used into building these lab grown organs. One of the methods Atala discussed used mainly with tubular and hallow organs is the “seed-and-scaffold approach”. The seed-and-scaffold approach consists of first taking a scaffold (temporary framework) shaped like the organ of choice. An ideal scaffold should imitate the extracellular matrix and mechanical properties of the specific organ and is designed to degrade once inside the body. This scaffold is then coded with cells. Using a biopsy from the organ in need and acquiring the desired cells, the cells are then grown in a cell culture, process of growing cells under controlled conditions outside their natural environment. After we have enough cells and completely cover the scaffold, we exercise the cell-seeded scaffold, conditioning it to function and acquire the organs mechanical properties before transplanting them it into the patient.
Another method used to construct lab-grown organs is the “organ-building approach”. This approach begins with an organ whose cells are…show more content… One is getting the correct cells to build these organs, and avoid any rejection. As just mentioned extracting cells from a patients organ by biopsy, is not always obtainable. On the other hand, cells from donors are highly available but have a higher risk for infection and rejection. Due to these restrictions stem cells have been used instead, which at times also have their own limitations. Whether it is ethical restrictions brought by embryonic stem cells (ESC), stem cells found in early embryo, or not having a well understanding of the reprogramming process for induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). Nevertheless, they are many other setbacks, understanding issues and innovation made and still yet to be