1. Feed Up which enables learners to answer questions about goals;
2. Feed Back which enables learners to answer questions about where they are now;
3. Feed Forward which enables learners to answer questions about where they need to go next.
Each of these types of feedback covers the following: task, process, self-regulation and self-level. Hattie and Timperley prove that even though little feedback is necessary at task level, feedback for the rest is predominant in bringing about change.
Feedback at Task Level
This type of feedback, often called corrective feedback, relates to how well a task has been accomplished catering for correctness, neatness or criterion coverage. Teachers’ questions cover about 90% of information at task level…show more content… Instead of zooming in on grades, ipsative feedback focuses on intrinsic motivation to progress. With the accruing number of studies regarding the importance of formative feedback, little or no consideration is given to ipsative feedback. This is due because feedback here is correlated only to external criteria and standards and not learners’ progress. Interestingly, ipsative feedback has the potential to address the three questions from Hattie and Timperley’s model at the process and self-regulation…show more content… The peculiarity of action research is that it is effected systematically by educators for themselves to develop awareness of their own practice (Johnson, 2008). Action research enables teachers to research study their own classrooms in all aspects, bringing in improved effectiveness in their practice (Parsons and Brown, 2002). A typical framework for carrying educational research is as follows:
1. Specify the topic about which a concern exists
2. Clarify the specific problem on which the research will focus
3. Formulate research questions and/or hypotheses concerning the main problem
4. Carry out procedures by which data (a more appropriate term for “information”) are collected, analysed, and interpreted
5. State the findings determined as a result of the data analysis
6. Draw conclusions related to the original research questions and/or hypotheses (Mertler and Charles, 2011).
One important component in action research is reflective teaching, that is preparing lessons or assessing learning on the basis of informed educational theories with a view to have optimal learning experiences (Parsons and Brown,