Intramuscular Injection Pain Case Study

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Barnhill, Holbert, Jackson, and Erickson (1996) reported that prior application of pressure to the injection site for 10 seconds would reduce injection pain. The research was conducted with 93 subjects, 43 subjects had pressure treatment and 45 received injection without pressure treatment. Average pain intensity was found to be 13.6mm and 21.5mm on 100mm visual analogue scale for experimental and control group with a significant difference in pain perception between experimental and control groups (P = 0.03). Similarly A randomized unblinded controlled trial was conducted by Chung JW, Wong TK, et al. (2002) to determine whether the application of manual pressure to the injection site before intramuscular injection reduces pain. A sample of 74 subjects was selected in the vaccination campaign using convenience sampling. One injection was given without manual pressure application (control condition) and the other one with manual pressure application prior to the injection for 10 seconds (experimental condition). The two conditions were randomly allocated for each subject and verbal rating scale was used to assess the pain intensity. To ensure the consistency of manual pressure being applied to the injection site, a mechanical…show more content…
One study revealed that pharmacological interventions (lidocaine–prilocaine) found them to be effective in reducing pain from immunization. Similarly, two studies identified physical pain relieving techniques, either skin cooling interventions (Fluori-Methane) or tactile stimulation (manual pressure at the site of injection) found them to reduce pain. One study of jet injectors found them to be more painful than conventional needle and syringe. Neither freezing needles nor warming vaccines was found to be effective in reducing pain. It also suggested the furthermore investigation on physical and psychological interventions for pain

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