No matter where they live, the intellectuals through their power of reasoning and understanding feel and call for the immediate requirements of humanity. On this line, they pave the way for the public and crystallize the obsessions in their works of any genre type. The intellectuals place and role in society, their tasks and obligations, the status they ascribe to themselves and that society ascribes to them, their streams of thoughts and attitudes depicted in their works have always been called into question from criticism viewpoint to reveal what they have been getting at and what they want to reveal. For example, it might even be said, Pace Carlyle, that the intellectual has been our most important modern person, interpreting events for…show more content… This may be due to the fact that, in many ways, the vocation of critic and reviewer emerged in tandem with the rise of literature itself as a subject of public consumption, entertainment, instruction, and manifestation.
Comparative literature has made this reality accessible to come up with the differences and commonalities of intellectuals in every part of the globe. Comparison and contrast of different aspects and concepts has received a major portion of literature studies. It covers a large number of areas such as two works with one theme, two different literatures over one concept or a point. A good example can be the comparison of crime in Morrison's Beloved and that of Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment. On the aggregate, they endeavor to develop a utopian definition of laws with respect to crime. Following this framework, this study is going to survey the concepts of utopia in the works of some contemporary intellectuals as the manifestation of their ideals and wishes revealing the concept of the intellectuals ‘search for the ideal self in exchange for the ambiguous self. The objective will be twofold. The major…show more content… A group of critics who are totally distant in time from each other take Moore's demand for communism as well as his other innovations quite seriously. Among these are the German 19 century socialist Karl Kautsky (1885), the British historian A.L. Morton (1952), and the German analyst Thomas Matcher (1982). In complete antagonism to these ''Literalists'', there is a second group who pleads for different ''metaphorical'' reading of Moore's work. They regard it not as a blue print for political reform but as a mere image of what an ideal society might look like. In more recent times, these two have been supplemented by two important articles of T.S. Dorsch (1967) and Merritt Abrash (1977-78) who try to turn utopia into a strongly ironical world depicting an unpleasant state of society which is not very far from the dystopia of wells, Huxley, or Orwell. For some, including C.S. Lewis (1954; 169- Berglar 1978;195), utopia is taken as a synonym for Wordsworth’s famous romantic dictum;'' a spontaneous overflow of intellectuals' high spirits''. Some others such as German historian Hermann Oncken (1922) and Gerhard Ritter (1940) take utopia literally too, but in a completely different sense from what Marxists view it. They consider it as a first model for British