Immunization Research Paper

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In childhood, immunizations and injections are among the most common health-related procedures experienced. An immunization is considered a minor and a minimally invasive procedure; however, an immunization still involves a needle and with children and adolescents the perception of the needle can cause distress and discomfort. Minimizing a child’s fear and creating a safe/positive experience during an immunization or injection, can lead to better healthcare experiences in later life. The use of distraction, or refocusing, has been useful in pain interventions for children. However, there has been little research conducted to investigate this method with adolescent patients. The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness and practicality of a simple musical distraction that…show more content…
Each adolescent was randomly assigned to one of the following three groups; (i) musical distraction via headphones, (ii) musical distraction without headphones (via loudspeakers), or (iii) standard care with no music distraction (control group). Prior to the immunization, the participants completed a background questionnaire to assess demographics. To design the questionnaire, researchers used the WHO-Euro cross-nation study series of health-related behaviors in school children measurement tools. In the standard care condition, adolescents came into the treatment room one at a time and the nurse administered the vaccination by injecting the shot into the participant’s deltoid muscle and placing a Band-Aid over the injection site. The nurse in the control condition was encouraged to retain his or her standard care techniques. The standard care techniques were most likely to verbally comfort and educate/guide the adolescent. The pain intervention in the study was refocusing an adolescent’s attention by actively and intently listening to music. The protocol for both intervention groups included the following procedure; describe the purpose of the

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