Hadrianic Baths

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DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION OF MARBLE IN THE GREEK ROMAN HADRIANIC BATHS IN LEPTIS MAGNA, LIBYA Nabil.A. ABD EL-TAWAB* Conservation Deptartment, Faculty of Archaeology, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt. Abstract The Hadrianic Baths is one of the most important archaeological sites in Leptis Magna- Libya. It was built at the command of Emperor Hadrian in the early 2nd century CE; they represent some of the most lavish structures of Leptis Magna. It is unique in design and building technique. It was built of limestone, marble and brick. This paper mainly describes the deterioration of marble. The marble in the monuments can be classified into several types, based on its color, texture, chemical composition and the constituent mineral. The…show more content…
Brick is also used in some outside parts of the baths and also marble. The focus of this paper is on marble. The Hadrianic baths were the first buildings in the city to be built largely of marble, for both structure and ornaments. Several types of marble were described by authors, including the pink brecia marble columns surrounding the swimming bath (or natatio), the huge cipollino marble columns in the main frigidarium hall and another type of marble, mentioned as being used, which was a green brecia. Six types of marble are found in the Hadrianic baths: pink brecia marble, cipollino marble, green brecia marble, blue-gray carrara marble, yellow, yellowish-white sienese marble and white/black creole marble, according to the classification made by P. Kearey (2001) [5]. Marble was used as a building stone in Libya since the 2nd century CE, as decorative construction material, for sculptures, columns and pillars, for casing of walls and paving stones. It was a symbol of beauty in the grand buildings built by emperors [1]. Marble was used in both internal and external applications and is available in several…show more content…
Impurities in the limestone affect the marble mineral composition. Marble can be found in thick deposits, over wide areas that are relatively free of cracks and easy to quarry. It takes a high polish. The chief drawback of marble is its high susceptibility to disintegration under the action of acid rain. Marble is not a hard rock and tends to wear rapidly if used on floors and steps. Marble occurs in a wide range of colors due to the variety of minerals present in the marble, like clay, sand, and silt. Pure marble (calcite) is a brilliant white. Disseminated graphite in marble changes its color to gray or blackish-gray. Green tints result from the presence of chlorite. Pink and red marble owes its color to finely dispersed hematite or manganese carbonate. Yellowish or cream colored marble contains limonite. These colors may be evenly distributed or they may occur in bands. Marble is plentiful in western Anatolia, Italy, Greece and elsewhere in the Mediterranean area, so it was widely used in that region. During DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION OF MARBLE IN THE GREEK ROMAN HADRIANIC BATHS

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