Bone regeneration consists in the formation of new bone after a process of remodeling and constitutes a complex physiological phenomenon that can occur during the repair of fractures. The embryonic tissue and bone are the only ones able to reconstitute itself completely after an injury. Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes a constant process of remodeled consisting of a balance between the osteoid matrix formation by osteoblasts and reabsorption of a quantity of bone by osteoclasts.  When the bone tissue is injured, for example after a fracture, put up complicated mechanisms molecular, physiological and biomechanical whose purpose is the formation of new tissue. 
However, there are complex clinical situations that can exceed the ability of bone regeneration. We refer to the large bone defects caused by complex fractures, infections, tumors or skeletal deformities. Other diseases involving the bone regenerative process may be the avascular necrosis, atrophic pseudarthrosis, or the severe osteoporosis.…show more content… These treatments consists in the replacement of the missing bone by autologous or allograft bone or by biocompatible materials. However, bone grafting require surgical interventions for the implantation of the bone scaffold in the injured area, which involves significant health risk, even so, the pathologic processes associated with the bone substitute remain frequent. The biggest problem is the possibility of adherence of bacteria to the scaffold, which causes an Osteomyelitis. Bacterial contamination probability in hip and knee replacements is the 2%, and 4%. Additionally, these bacterial colonies are very difficult to treat, since microorganisms become more resistant when attached to biological materials.