Biofouling and its Effects
The attachment of an organism or organisms on a surface that is submerged for a period of time is known as biofouling. The definition is quite straightforward, there are different kinds of biofouling, based on the several organisms and surfaces affected by it, and many solutions of this problem has been proposed by scientists, engineers and others. Also this definition simplifies what really occurs.
This problem of biofouling occurs worldwide from oil and gas industries in China to Indian Ocean, fishing and cooling systems of Caspian Sea and Chesapeake Bay, respectively. The ship hull is one of the most common biofouling sites that barnacles can be found. The growth of biofouling organisms can lead to the eventual…show more content… The biofilm or a slime layer is a main component of microfouling (IMO, 2011).
Multicellular and visible organisms such as barnacles, mussels, tubeworms and algae attached to a submerged surface is known as macrofouling (IMO, 2011).
Biofilm and its Relevance to Biofouling
Biofouling is not simply sucking into a substrate like a suction but it is involves several processes to make it happen. The formation of biofilm is usually a starting process for biofouling. A film of bacteria such as Thiobacilli or other microorganisms is known as biofilm and usually requires right conditions to attach onto substrate or material (Gehrke et al., 2003). Presence of nutrients such as dissolved organic carbon, humic substances and uronic acid are required by biofilm forming bacteria for optimal growth (Griebe et al., 2000). Biofilms do not usually contain living material, but it contains once living material such as dead microorganisms or its secretions. Bacteria are not only microorganisms that are capable of forming biofilm, but also diatoms, seaweed and their secretions have the capability to form