In the ditransitive constructions come under this class, the verb always assigns beneficiary thematic role to the indirect object. For this reason, such constructions are considered as the most typical ditransitive constructions. The semantics of the verbs involved in such constructions express the transfer of possession to some animate recipient (or animate recipient-like argument), which is the motivational factor for beneficiary thematic role assignment with possessor interpretation. Another important aspect about such constructions is that the indirect object surely gets the object under the theme θ-role. Some of the Punjabi verbs that show such behavior are d̪e ‘give’, sɔ̃p ‘hand over’, vec ‘sell’, d̪əss ‘tell’, etc. For the similar reason, such verbs are also considered as the typical ditransitive verbs in the literature. These verbs usually occur in the following clause pattern of S-IO-DO-V , where IO (indirect object) is obligatory marked with dative marker nũ.
(17) a. ਮੁੰਡੇ ਨੇ ਕੁਡ਼ੀ ਨੂੰ ਕਿਤਾਬ ਦਿੱਤੀ। mʊnɖe ne kʊɽi nũ kɪt̪ab d̪ɪt̪t̪i boy-ERG girl-DAT book.F.SG.NOM give-PFV.F.SG ‘The boy gave the girl a book .’
Here the indirect object kʊɽi ‘girl’ is recipient argument with the…show more content… These are also conditioned by the animacy of the indirect object, like if it is animate, it usually play the role a dative one, on the other hand if it is inanimate, it functions as a locative. For cross-linguistic evidences, Miyagawa and Tsujioka (2004) consulted with a large number of Japanese native speakers over the ditransitive constructions. They observed that when the dative noun (indirect object) is an animate noun, it has a possessor interpretation, and when the dative noun is an inanimate noun, it has a locative