Conjectures And Refutations, By Karl Popper

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Philosopher of Science Karl Popper (1902-1994) defines the problem of demarcation as being able to differentiate between pseudo-science and science. Popper published the article ‘Conjectures and Refutations’ (1963), this article accordingly repudiates induction and rejects the view that it is the characteristic method of scientific investigation and inference, substituting falsifiability in its place. According to Popper, we must accept the fact that in the empirical sciences it is impossible to prove a theory in an absolute sense, as in mathematics or logic. The only way to advance, therefore, is through a process of trial and error, of conjectures and refutations. Since we can never be sure that our current knowledge is correct or complete,…show more content…
Millions of innocent people were systematically slaughtered, this inhumane policy although has originated from a single mind, but requires the masses to obey orders. Once the experiment was concluded, he subsequently published the article Behavioural Study of Obedience which studies destructive obedience to authority. The Milgram experiment on obedience to authority figures was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale University psychologist Stanley Milgram. They measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts conflicting with their personal conscience. He wanted to conclude that why do people obey when they feel as though they’re coerced by authority. Before the experiment took place, Milgram and his colleagues predicted that a small minority would go through the end of the shock series (The estimates ranged from 0 to 3%). The class mean was 1.2% of teachers would reach the end shock, this was the…show more content…
According to Popper’s belief, the theory is scientific if it falsifiable and refutable. This fits the criterion for Milgram’s experiment as he predicted prior to experimentation that most participants would defy the authorities order (teacher), but instead, and overwhelming amount obeyed, contrary to the hypothesis. This experiment refuted Milgram’s initial belief, and proved that the study is falsifiable. Thus reinforcing Popper’s view that the experiment was scientific, as it fits within his criterion for demarcation. Popper states that in order for a theory to be regarded as scientific, is must have genuine evidence and must be testability. Testability is highly prevalent in Milgram’s experiment, as his study is falsifiable; this further suits the requirements for his study to be scientific in Popper’s view. Milgram’s study passes Popper’s consideration of risky prediction since Milgram’s hypothesis could’ve been easily proven wrong had the majority of the teachers succumb to whelm of the experimenters. Milgram’s study earns the status of the experiment being scientific as it fits poppers criteria, which being that the study must be falsifiable, refutable and

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