In the aftermath of Cold War, a peaceful and stable world order emerged. However, this current unipolar stability, is being challenged by the “rise of the new powers” which would result in a return to a multi-polar international system.
A. Samuel Huntingtons’s Unipolar International System
• Clash of Civilization
B. Fareed Zakaria’s Multi-Polar International System
• Declination of United States
• Rise of the Rest
In the contrasting view of political analysts, a stable world order is still attainable despite the decline and rise of relative power of states.
In line with the discipline of International Relations, a state is consider to have great power if it tops in military prowess, economic…show more content… These several distinction made the world divided into Western states and non- Western states. According to Samuel Huntington, "The most important distinctions among peoples are no longer ideological, political, or economic. They are cultural" (Huntington 21). Peoples and nations are seeking to answer the most practical question that faces the human race: who are we? They try to answer the question by reference to the things that mean most of them. People define themselves in terms of ancestry, language, religion, history, values, customs and institutions. They identify with cultural groups such as tribes, ethnic groups, religious communities and at the broadest level, civilization. However, alongside these new patterns, conflict will occur along the boundaries of different cultures and patterns of cohesion will be found within the cultural boundaries. Huntington develops a new form civilization paradigm to create a better understanding of the post-Cold War order, and to fill the gaps of the already existing paradigms. He divided the world into eight major civilizations. Following the explanations of the separate civilizations in the new paradigm, Huntington describes Western cultures as it led to rapid expansion and eventual domination of ideas, values, and religion. The relations among civilizations have moved beyond the unidirectional influence of the west on the rest. Huntington then established the idea of universal civilization which paved the concept of Western cultural hegemony. According to him the domination of West in global communications may bring resentment to the hostilities of non-Western peoples. Having this misconception, the essence of universal shared culture is not helpful in constructing a global political order. As the world is becoming modern, it is simultaneously becoming less Western.