Coffea Arabica Research Paper

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Coffea arabica: the most popular coffee beans in the world Introduction Coffea arabica is the most consumed coffee beans in the world and the second most traded commodity after oil. Drinking coffee every day, especially in the morning is becoming a common ritual for all people worldwide. Due to high consumption of coffee globally, it is a noble idea to understand its origin. In linguistic terms, the word 'coffee' enrolled in the English language in the late 16th century through the Dutch Koffi, which is derived from the Ottman Turkish kahve, a term borrowed from the Arabic qahwah. There are many legends and mystery about the discovery of coffee. Though, the most famous one is a shepherd who observed his goats becoming energetic after eating…show more content…
He classified it under genus Jasminum until 1737 when Linnaeus classified it in a different genus called Coffea within family Rubiaceae. This family is one of the largest flowering families with 611 genera and around 13,500 species. The main characteristics of this family include opposite and entire leaf, interpetiolar stipule, actinomorphic flower and an inferior ovary. The main differentiation between Coffea Arabica and all other genera is the type of gynaecium and placenta. Coffea species were classified by Chevalier (1947) into four sections (Argocoffea, Paracoffea, Mascarocoffea, and Eucoffea) (Clifford and Wilson, 208). However, Leroy (1967) suggested excluding Argocoffea and Paracoffea as a result of the difference in coffee bean shape (Clifford and Wilson, 13). In addition, the Eucoffea section has been renamed Coffea, which is also categorized into five subsections depending on specific criteria such as tree height (Nanocoffea), leaf thickness (Pachyocoffea), fruit color (Erylhrocoffea and Melanocoffea), and geographic distribution (Mozambicoffea) (Clifford and Wilson,…show more content…
Coffea arabica is native to Ethiopia, South Sudan, and Kenya. It is mainly found in highlands and mountains. The first cultivation and trade of coffee started in Yemen in the 12th century. It then spread to all over the world. In 1696, the Dutch East India Company cultivated and introduced it in Java and Sumatra, where the seeds were taken from Mocha in Yemen (Clifford and Wilson, 1). Currently, the distribution and production of C. arabica have become under threat. This is as a result of climate change. Moreover, the study shows that increasing temperature will reduce suitable environment for C. arabica’s growth by approximately 50% by 2050 (Bunn et al., 92). This, in turn, will affect about 25 million people who entirely depend on coffee production as a source of their income (Bunn et al.,

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