Barium Research Paper

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Barium Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in group 2 and is a soft, silvery alkaline earth metal. Because of its high chemical reactivity, barium is never found in nature as a free element. Its hydroxide, known in pre-modern history as baryta, does not occur as a mineral, but can be prepared by heating barium carbonate. The most common naturally occurring minerals of barium are barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) and witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO3), both insoluble in water. Barium is a naturally occurring component of minerals that are found in small but widely distributed amounts in the earth's crust, especially in igneous rocks, sandstone, shale, and coal (Kunesh 1978; Miner 1969a).…show more content…
• Appearance silvery grey/ with a pale yellow tint. • Density 3.51g/cm3. • In soluble in water. • Barium salts are typically white when solid. • Colour less when dissolved in water. • Water insoluble salts and an inability of the barium ions to form soluble complexes with fulvic and humic acid • Melting point 725 C • Boiling point 1670 C • Barium has a medium specific weight and good electrical conductivity. • Reaction with water and alcohols are very exothermic and release hydrogen gas. • Ultra barium is very difficult to prepare and therefore many properties of barium have not been accurately measured yet. • At room temperature and pressure barium has a body centred cubic structure. Toxicity • Water soluble barium compounds are poisonous. • Barium identified as a toxic element to most plants leaf area and yield sharply decreased with increase in Barium concentration . • Cause chlorosis followed by necrotic spots. • Stomatal closing , Reduce photosynthetic activity. • Perturbed carbon fixation metabolism and…show more content…
Conditions such as pH, Eh (oxidation-reduction potential), cation exchange capacity, and the presence of sulfate, carbonate, and metal oxides (e.g., oxides of aluminum, manganese, silicon, and titanium) will affect the partitioning of barium and its compounds in the environment. The major features of the biogeochemical cycle of barium include wet and dry deposition to land and surface water, leaching from geological formations to groundwater, adsorption to soil and sediment particulates, and biomagnification in terrestrial and aquatic food

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