Antibiotic Environmental Resistance In Aquaculture

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Vibrios are indigenous to all aquatic environments and are known widely as major shrimp pathogens. Antibiotics are extensively used in farms and aquaculture as food additives to promote animal growth and prevent diseases. Consequently, antibiotics are released in large amounts into natural ecosystems, where they can impact the structure and activity of environmental microbial populations (Martinez, 2009a; Martinez, 2009b). Undoubtedly, the occurrence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are recognized worldwide as a major public health concern. Efforts for the prevention of the spread of ARGs and ARB focused on clinical and human community levels, being centred especially on infection…show more content…
Therefore, Vibrio sp. of the Cochin estuary must have acquired β-lactam resistance from other anthropogenic sources. More than 50% of the E. coli isolated from shrimp farms of Vypeen, Cochin were resistant to ampicillin (Harish et al., 2003). Sixty percent of the E. coli isolated from the Cochin estuary were resistant to ampicillin (Chandran et al., 2008). The level of resistance of E. coli towards many β-lactams was found to be very high (Divya, 2013) showing that the level of β-lactam resistance is generally high in the Cochin estuary. It is reflected in many of the enteropathogens isolated from the Cochin backwaters from different sources such as water, sediment and sea foods. Cochin estuary has been found to be highly polluted with Enterobacteriaceae from various sources such as hospitals and open sewage disposal from households surrounding the estuary. More than 95% of the 43 different serotypes of E. coli that occur in the Cochin estuary were multiple antibiotic resistant. The study also has suggested that such an environment can act as an artificial (i.e. created by anthropogenic factors) reservoir of ARBs, which can be transmitted to other pathogenic bacteria by HGT (Hatha et al., 2004; Chandran et al., 2008). There are ample evidences that suggest that class-A extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M, a plasmid borne antibiotic resistance gene present in human pathogens is exchanged between…show more content…
from aquaculture farms in Australia were comparatively lesser than in the present study (Akinbowale et al., 2006). Among Vibrio sp. isolated from the imported sea foods and aquaculture settings in Italy, resistance to ampicillin was 82% (Ferrini et al., 2008). V. parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. vulnificus, V. cholerae, V. alginolyticus strains isolated from Litopeneaus vannamei and the rearing water in Malaysian aquaculture ponds were resistant to ampicillin (Banerjee et al., 2012). V. harveyi, implicated as the causative agent of Bright red Syndrome in L. vannamei was resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin, showing how universal β-lactam resistance is (Soto-Rodriguez et al.,

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