There are many signaling pathways that occur in type II diabetes mellitus. Among these cascades, one that has been demonstrated as having an increasing pathological role is initiated by the non-enzymatic accumulation of heterogeneous glycation end-products, known as advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) (Soman, S., et al., 2013 & Ramasamy R., et al., 2005). AGEs are the products of non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids in the presence of sugars, which accumulate in differing pathological situations, such as diabetes, inflammation, renal failure, and aging (Ramasamy et al., 2005 & Hegab, Z., et al. 2012). AGEs are capable of crosslinking long-lived proteins, which include both intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins, leading to an…show more content… AGEs are also capable of modulating multiple cellular processes via binding to their cell surface receptor, known as the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) (Hegab, Z., et al., 2012).
AGEs is a variety of heterogeneous compounds that are created through a process called the Maillard reaction (Hegab, Z., et al., 2012). The starting compounds that undergo the Maillard reaction consist of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, which are subsequently glycated or oxidized non-enzymatically (Hegab, Z., et al., 2012). Due to high concentrations in human plasma, glucose plays a primary role in the glycation process (Hegab, Z., et al., 2012). A Maillard reaction takes place due to all the glucose being present. The beginning of the Maillard reaction consists of aan interaction between the carbonyl groups of a reducing sugar, such as glucose, and the amino acids of proteins,