Regarded as a writer of notable literature, both in fiction and in nonfiction, Joaquin certainly stakes a claim. A Question of Heroes is no exception to this. Published in 1981, the collection of fourteen essays spans from the beginning of the Revolution even beyond Burgos up to what Joaquin considers to be the end of it all, marked by the death of Artemio Ricarte. The essays are not without the language and texture that is characteristic of Joaquin’s other works but they still hold true to facts that create the structure by which he critiques it. With structure and source in mind, one calls to question where a writer gains such insight into the world of history. Besides have written essays on the nation, culture, and history itself, the book, aside from being a source, includes many references like recounts of other notable…show more content… He explicitly says that the “drama of the propaganda may be divided into three acts, the initial phase dominated by Rodriguez Valera; a second phase represented by Father Pelaez; and a third culmination in Burgos.” The following essays focus more specifically on Rizal. The fourth essay entitled “the Anatomy of the Anti-Hero” paints two different personas as illustrated by Guerrero and Radaic, both resisting the title of hero. The former painted Rizal’s nationalism as “political rather than social or economic” while the latter claimed he was “anxious, nervous, insecure.” And so, his heroism seemed questionable to Joaquin as Rizal is a Creole, or someone who did not seem entirely embody a Filipino. Joaquin does not end his critique on hereos with Rizal. In fact, the following chapters explores people like Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo, Apolinario Mabini, and Antonio Luna from their upbringing to their position in society and in the revolution.