Water Desalination Case Study Solution

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Chapter One Introduction 1.1 Introduction The demand of clean water has always been a major universal concern and this issue is becoming more urgent with the expectation of water deficiency to an alarming rate by the year 2025. Hence, there are needs a new technologies for desalination and wastewater treatments, to meet the requirement water demands with credible and affordable water sources. [Teoh and Chung, 2009] (1) Desalination is a process in which saline water is separated into two parts using different forms of energy. One that has a low con-centration of dissolved salts (fresh water), and the other which has a much higher concentration of dissolved salts than the original feed water (brine concentrate).[ Shatat et al., 2013] 1.2 Water desalination technologies…show more content…
Minimization of corrosion troubles that could occur due to interactions between process solutions and membranes. 9. Probability of combining membrane processes with other separation process (hybrid system). 10. Easy scale-up with no requirements of additives. The main disadvantage of MD process is [Teoh and Chung, 2009, Alcheikhhamdon et al., 2015](4): 1. Low permeate flow rate. 2. Membrane fouling and membrane pore wetting 3. Long term performance. 4. Uncertain economics and energy costs. 5. Mass transfer resistance due to trapped air in the membrane which reduces permeates flux. 6. Low membrane lifetime. 1.4 Application of membrane distillation According to [El-Bourawi et al., 2006, Zhang, 2001] membrane distillation has been applied for: 1. Large range of desalination and water treatment. 2. Due to the low feed temperature, MD can also be used for concentrating solutions in the Food industry like milk and jounce. 3. Chemical and pharmaceutical application and removal of water from blood. 4. Separation of isotropic mixtures. 5. Nuclear industry and concentration of radioactive solutions. 6. Textile waste treatment that is contaminated with dyes and concentration of coolant aqueous

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