Transtheoretical Model

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The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) was developed by Prochaska and DiClemente in 1983 (Lenio) and is currently one of the most widely used models in the study of health behavior change (Contento). TTM suggests that self change in behavior moves through five different stages known as the Stages of Change. The Stages of Change are based upon the individual’s readiness to change. Behavioral change is an ongoing process. TTM helps guide people through the process of change using different stages depending upon the individual themselves and their willingness to move forward. The time frame a person can stay in each stage may vary depending upon the individual, but they must complete certain tasks to move from one stage to another. This model,…show more content…
The two mediators of change are the pros and cons of change and self-efficacy. The pros and cons of change deal with the perceived benefits and barriers that a person believes they will be facing if they change their behavior. Whereas self-efficacy “is the confidence that people have that they can carry out the behavior across different challenging situations and not relapse to their previous, less healthy behavior” (Contento 110). The processes of change are divided into two groups: experiential, which focuses on thoughts, feelings, and experiences. The experiential processes associated with change are consciousness-raising, dramatic relief or emotional arousal, self-reevaluation, environmental reevaluation, and self-liberation (Contento). The second group is behavioral, which focuses on behavior and reinforcement. The behavioral processes associated with change are helping relationships, counter-conditioning, managing rewards, stimulus or environmental control, and social liberation (Contento). Just as individuals move through the five stages of change at different rates, they also move through the processes at different rates within the different…show more content…
The study was conducted in Hawaii with 700 participants. Participants were randomly selected and were assessed every six months over a period of two years. The focus of the review was, whether or not the TTM of behavior change could provide a useful basis of intervention to promote fruit and vegetable consumption. Also, “to determine whether the TTM constructs differ between individuals making successful versus unsuccessful stage transitions for consumption of five or more servings of fruit and vegetables each day and thus provide a useful basis for designing health promotion interventions” (Horwath). The review concluded that TTM behavioral processes, specifically self-liberation, could predict successful transition out of pre-contemplation for adult fruit and vegetable consumption (Horwath). Therefore, public health messages customized to the TTM variables can be effective. However, for adults ready to adopt or maintain fruit and vegetable consumption, customization from other theories are necessary. This review examined different aspects of the TTM and challenged the assumptions regarding when to use specific processes of change. It proved the importance of behavioral processes, mainly self-liberation, to be important to be successful in transitions out of pre-contemplation

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