Titrimetric methods of analysis are capable of rapid and convenient analyte determinations with high accuracy and precision. Titrimetric analysis is based on the complete reaction between the analyte and a reagent, the titrant: aA + tT products where A and T represent the analyte and titrant, respectively, and a and t are the stoichiometric coefficients.
The type of reaction provides us with a simple way to classify titrimetry into the following four categories: acid–base titrations, in which an acidic or basic titrant reacts with a titrand that is a base or an acid; complexometric titrations based on metal–ligand complexation; redox titrations, in which the titrant is an oxidizing or reducing agent; and precipitation titrations, in which the titrand and titrant form a precipitate.
For volumetric…show more content… We call this stoichiometric mixture the equivalence point. Unlike precipitation gravimetry, where the precipitant is added in excess, determining the exact volume of titrant needed to reach the equivalence point is essential. The product of the equivalence point volume, Veq, and the titrant’s concentration, CT, gives the moles of titrant reacting with the analyte. Knowing the stoichiometry of the titration reaction(s), we can calculate the moles of analyte.
Sadly, there is no obvious indication that the equivalence point has been reached most of the time and we stop adding titrant when end point is reached where there will be some colour changes of a substance added to the solution containing the analyte. The substances are known as indicators. The difference between the end point volume and the equivalence point volume is known as titration error. If the differences between the end point and equivalence point volumes is small, then the titration error is insignificant and can be safely