Theories Of Leadership

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LEADERSHIP Ogbeidi (2012) found that leadership is referred as “ability to lead, direct and organize a group”. The study of leadership has developed scientifically through changing paradigms during its history where several models and theories have tried to explain the concept of leadership. Kuchler (2008) acknowledges that although subject of leadership is diverse and somewhat scattered but it tends to be one of the most widely discussed topics by the researchers all over the world. We found myriad definitions of leadership after studying detailed literature on it. The concept of leadership is described by different researchers with different perspectives. According to Jong and Hartog (2007) described leadership as a process to influence…show more content…
Mosadeghard (2003) had pointed out different styles of leadership. These styles are: autocratic, bureaucratic, laissez-faire, charismatic, democratic, participative, situational, transactional, and transformational leadership. Aioanei (2006) explained that in autocratic leadership style, organization is highly centralized. Leaders are more concerned with the tasks to be performed rather than developing relations. In this type of leadership employees are less involved and most of the decisions are made by the management. Vugt et al. (2004) stated that in autocratic leadership style, employees are not involved in decision making, it is only leaders who decide what to do and how to do. While in democratic leadership, leaders allow employees to involve in decision-making process. Their involvement can be participative or consultative. In lassies-faire style of leadership, Leaders don’t exercise their control over employees and employees have freedom that they can do what they want without any hurdle. Outstanding leadership is defined as a leadership that demands having a right man in the right place (Mumford, 2008). He pointed out that there are three types of outstanding leadership: charismatic leadership, ideological leadership and pragmatic leadership. Charismatic leaders put emphasis on goal attainment and perceive…show more content…
These leadership styles are also measured in terms of job satisfaction and employee performance. Bass (1998) found that when leader’s incentive, proceeds, power and control are depending on adequacy and competence of employee’s performance then it is considered as transactional style of leadership. Rowold and Schlotz (2009) also conducted a study on the relationship of leadership and performance and they explain that transactional leadership is the trade of explicit transactions and in response of these transactions leader’s reward amplifies the performance of employee or subordinate. Transactional style of leadership is based on tentative support and in this exchange relationship, employees are motivated and encouraged through recognition in monetary terms, low performers are corrected through penalty and if expected performance is achieved, it leads to promotion (Munaf, 2011). In short, transactional leadership gives encouragement to employees or followers to perform according to leader’s expectation and get rewards and promotion. Ramayah et al. (2009) stated that important aspect of transactional leadership style is facilitating the followers to be familiar with job obligations and recognized objectives to achieve estimated degree of performance. It is acknowledged by (Janssen & Yperen, 2004) that transactional leadership assists the efficiency by enhancing innovative job performance

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