The Network Society Theory

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Castells' The Network Society theory (2010) implies that networks shape new world order. In the network society, which also means a paradigm shift, all institutions are organized in a network between themselves and within themselves. The network society theory points to the changes in the characteristic structures of individuals, their ways of understanding the world, and the emergence of new forms of communication. On the other hand, Connectivism, the thesis that knowledge is distributed across a network of connections (Downes, 2008), is an approach, that explains learning on networks as learning theory of the digital age. Connectivism consists of three different combinations of thought: chaos theory, the importance of networks, and the interplay…show more content…
According to McLuhan and Lapham (1994), the products that come out with technology are the parts that enhance the accessibility of our bodies and senses. While this is the case, the IoT products will present the five principles as an extension of the human being. This condition inevitably requires designers to internalize the network's logic. Yet the network logic is greater than the sum of its parts, as well as the smart products that will form the tangible IoT, the context of the network itself is also becoming an important design input and output to act in the novel ways of social interaction. As each separate smart design entity will act just a part of a larger network, to say the least, product designers should know and be aware of how the data moves through the network (pattern of the data flow in a network), basic networking fundamentals such as networking concepts, network architecture, network communications and network design to position their product in the…show more content…
IOT scale will bring connectivity, complexity and probably catastrophe which makes it extremely challenging to control. The enormous scale of an IoT like system depends on its smart parts and the interactions between those parts where the whole often seems to take on a form that is not recognizable from the parts due to interactive parts, which affect each other through complex networks of relationships (Jackson, 2003). Any change in a part cascade through an increasing number of connected parts, in part feeding back, positively and/or negatively, into the initial part (Gershenson, 2010) and the whole which gives meaning to the parts and their interactions (Jackson, 2003). As dividing an elephant in half does not produce two small elephants (Senge, 2006) and vice versa; inability to see the scale of the IoT system as a whole can create a world of problems for a designer who just independently motivated on a unique product in the whole. The nonlinear, unpredictable and self-organizing system characteristics of chaotic IoT increases the importance of every product that will participate in the system yet the IoT is sensitive and dependent to its constantly renewing initial conditions. For this reason, it is necessary for designers to think holistically (Valencia and et. al., 2014) and to develop a set of system thinking habits or practices to cope with the scale created by the chaotic

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