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1) Describe the changes you have made in your approach to study and learn to improve your grade. Explain why you made these changes. Lack of response indicates that no changes have been made. For the previous exams, I took notes, did the modules, and quizzes, and Khan Academy. Then studied for the exam using the notes that I had made from the lectures and modules. I have never been good at studying. I don’t really know how to effectively study besides just repetition. For this exam, I am going to try concept maps (I have a difficult time with big pictures) maybe something more visual will help me remember where things go. I am still going to use Khan Academy and the modules because they make the most sense to me, because I can slow them down…show more content…
The monosaccharides have centers that are asymmetrical and have D and L configurations based on the location of the carbon furthest from the alcohol or ketone group. These sugars are mostly in a ring/cyclic formation where the carbonyl group attaches the hydroxyl group furthest away, the anomeric carbon. The third objective is about linkages. The monosaccharides that link together to form oligosaccharides form a link called an O-glycosidic bond. This is where the reducing and non-reducing carbons come in to play, which I am not completely sure about. Structures of polysaccharides are determined by the linkages; there are 2 types. The Beta-1,4-linkages are straight chains that are good for structural purposes, while the alpha-1,4-linkages are more bent and used more for storage. The fourth objective is the glycosaminoglycan and the glycoconjugates. The glycosaminoglycan is a polysaccharide chain that is used as a lubricant (glucosamine is in my joint juice I drink every morning because I have bad knees and it helps lubricate my joints, that made sense to me). The glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, which are carbohydrates and proteins that are covalently attached. Used as cell adhesion, what makes sperm stick to egg and viral proteins evade immune…show more content…
Glycogen phosphorylase has an active R state where it is most active and mostly inactive T state. These usually go with the forms as well, form a in the R state is mostly active and form b in the T state is mostly inactive The third objective is how glycogen is controlled in the muscle. Muscles are greedy and want to use the ATP up. So in muscles, phosphorylase a is active and phosphorylase b is inactive. While resting the enzyme is inactive. The active form a is AMP-independent and the inactive form b is AMP-dependent. Exercise will cause the hormone epinephrine to release which will promote the phosphorylated a form. The fourth objective is how glycogen is controlled in the liver. While muscles are greedy, the liver is the producer, making sure there is enough glucose for everyone. Muscle is regulated by AMP but the liver is regulated by glucose levels, when blood sugar is low then the glucose reserve is broken down, and when the blood sugar is high the glucose is synthesized, or the savings are filled. Pentose Phosphate

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