Sanitation In Mental Health

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SANITATION, HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT Health and Development Assignment I Upasana Iyer First Year, MA Social Work in Mental Health INTRODUCTION Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces to maintain hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal (WHO). Although this is the formal definition coined by WHO, the context of sanitation differs between the developing and developed countries. In the developed countries, sanitation implies to environmental sanitation thereby aiming to improve sanitation infrastructure but in developing countries, governments aim to increase the use of toilets and eradication of…show more content…
• A recent study by the Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank estimates that inadequate sanitation costs India the equivalent of 6.4% of its GDP. • In 2009, 51% of people had access to sanitation facilities in comparison to 2002, when only 40% of people had access. Federal spending on sanitation increased to about three-fold in 2005. • According to the 69th round NSSO, 59.4% and 8.8% households in rural India and urban India have no basic sanitation facilities. In 2012, Jharkhand had the highest proportions of rural households (90.5%) that lacked toilet facilities. Other states with high estimates were Tamilnadu (66.4%), Karnataka(70.8%), Bihar(72.8%), Rajasthan(73%), Uttar Pradesh(75.3), Chattisgarh(76.7), Madhya Pradesh(79), Odisha(81.3). • According to the India Human Development Report (IHDR), 2011, the three marginalised social groups SC(69), ST(65) and OBCs(54) are way above the national average of 49% for households without toilets. • Among religious communities, 50% of Hindu households lacked toilet facilities as compared to the Muslim households that estimated 36%. (IHDR…show more content…
Historically, India has always evolved to be a land of the snake charmers where numerous local traditions, beliefs, cultures, values and superstitions play a pivotal role in deciding the course of people’s lives. One of the most affected by these multi-dimensional links to sanitation challenge are the poor and disadvantaged and those who are remotely located. In a country, where the bridge between the rich and the poor is wide, those who have been underprivileged have always experience multi-layered marginalisation owing to their low education status, poor access to basic facilities, eventually, demeaning them to the level of being powerless and unable to access safety and health for

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