Pyramid Vs Pyramid Model

870 Words4 Pages
Cutlip et al.’s stepped PII model and the Pyramid Model both suggest that you do not proceed to the next step unless you have incorporated formal and informal feedback gathered from the previous step. For instance, if early feedback or formal measurement (such as pre-testing) finds that a selected medium is inappropriate, no practitioner would reasonably proceed to distribution of information using that medium – at least one would hope not. The Pyramid Model deliberately combines formative and evaluative research in the belief that the two types of research must be integrated and work as a continuum of information gathering and feedback in the communication process, not as separate discrete functions. This fits with the “scientific management…show more content…
PR Effectiveness Yardstick - Respected US practitioner and researcher, Walter Lindenmann, has proposed an approach to research and evaluation based on three levels of sophistication and depth, rather than the chronological process of communication from planning through implementation to achievement of objectives. Lindenmann sees level one as evaluation of outputs such as measuring media placements or impressions (total audience reached). He terms level two ‘Intermediate’ and describes this level as measuring comprehension, retention, awareness and reception. Level three is described as ‘Advanced’ and focuses on measuring opinion change, attitude change or, at the highest level, behavioral change (see Figure 19). Level One output evaluation is the low cost, basic level, but even this should be “more detailed than counting up media clippings or using ‘gut reactions’ which are informal judgements lacking any rigor in terms of methodology”, Noble and Watson (1999, p. 13) explain. Intermediate measurement criteria in Lindenmann’s PR Effectiveness Yardstick introduce a possible fourth stage of communication – outgrowths, also referred to as out-takes by Michael Fairchild (as cited in Noble & Watson, 1999, p. 13.). This stage refers to what audiences receive or ‘take out’ of communication activities. Several academics and researchers support identification of this additional stage in communication after inputs and outputs because, before audiences change their opinion, attitudes…show more content…
16). The elements of the Continuing Model of Evaluation, illustrated in Figure 20, are: (1) an initial stage of research leading to (2) setting of objectives and identification of desired effects; (3) selection and planning of strategy; (4) tactical choices; (5) effects of some kind; and (6) multiple levels of formal and informal analysis are conducted. Feedback from these multiple formal and informal analyses are looped back into each stage of the communication program, with strategy and tactics adjusted as required to finally achieve

More about Pyramid Vs Pyramid Model

Open Document