Pain Relief Lab Report

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A Pain Relief unit provides electrical stimulation to the painful area using electrodes attached to the skin. The electrical energy is applied in the form of mild, electrical impulses. The impulses pass through the skin and interact with the nerves that lie underneath the skin. The electrical impulses act on the nervous system in such a way as to suppress the sensation of pain that would otherwise serve as a protective mechanism. We can set this machine for different frequencies used for different intensities of pain. The impulses are in the form of a steady flow of electrical current or a burst of electrical current. KEYWORDS Electrical Stimulation, Pain Relief, Electrical Impulse. 1. INTRODUCTION Electrical stimulation is used for nerve…show more content…
This unit comprises of a Step-down transformer having a 50:1 turn ratio which steps-down the 230V AC to 5V AC. Rectification then takes place to convert the AC into DC. This is done using a bridge rectifier circuit consisting of four diodes. The pulsating DC got after the rectification stage is passed through a capacitor filter to get pure DC. An electrolytic capacitor (2200µF, 25V) is being used. It is a high temperature radial capacitor. The 15V DC is stepped down to 5V DC using a voltage regulator. Thus the 5V DC output obtained is used to run the circuit. A LED detector is being used as a visual detector which remains ON during the working of the power supply and OFF when the power supply is…show more content…
We can also control the frequency of the buzzer by adjusting the value of RV5 and/or capacitor C4. 3.4 FREQUENCY GENERATOR CIRCUIT In this circuit the 555 timer IC is being used in astable mode. In this mode, the 555 timer acts as an oscillator and the circuit does not require any external trigger to change the state of the output. The frequency of the wave can be adjusted by changing the values of two resistors- RV2 & RV3 and the capacitor C2 connected to the chip. In this circuit, the resistor RV2 is connected between Vcc and discharge pin 7. The other resistor RV3 is connected between the discharge pin 7 and the trigger pin 2. The pin 2 and the threshold pin 6 are shorted and connected through the capacitor C2. This capacitor charges through resistor RV2 and RV3 and discharges through RV3 only. The pin1 is connected to the ground for negative biasing, and the pin 5 is connected to the ground through the capacitor, and the pin3 is used as an output. Capacitor C2 begins charging toward VCC through resistances RV2 and RV3. Eventually, the threshold voltage exceeds 2/3 VCC, and the timer output is low. The discharge transistor Q3 saturates so that the capacitor C2 discharges through resistance RV3 with a discharging time

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