All Narcissus (Narjis) species also known as daffodil, contain the alkaloid poison which is lycorine, mostly in the bulb but also in the leaves. Alkaloids are any of a large class of naturally occurring, complex organic compounds that contain nitrogen and have physiological effects on animals, including humans. Most alkaloids occur in plants, although some are produced by fungi and animals. Alkaloids are bases and usually form colourless crystalline solids with a bitter taste. They have a wide range of effects and are used as medicines and poisons. Morphine, quinine, strychnine, codeine, caffeine, cocaine, and nicotine are some of the examples of alkaloids. Alkaloids are found primarily in plants and are especially common in certain…show more content… At least fifteen alkaloids have been isolated from the bulb as well as from flowers. These alkaloids are poisonous and harmful on ingestion or skin contact. The bulbs are powerful emetic, diuretic and purgative. Oral ingestion of bulb causes vomiting, salivation, diarrhea and sometimes shivering.
The toxic effects of ingesting Narcissus (Narjis) products for both man and animals such as cattle, goats, pigs and cats, have long been recognised and they have been used in suicide attempts. Ingestion of N. pseudonarcissus or N. jonquilla is followed by salivation, acute abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, then neurological and cardiac events, including trembling, convulsions, and paralysis. Death may result if large quantities are consumed.
Skin contact of this plant causes rashes and allergic contact dermatitis. Lesion on fingers, hands, face etc. are seen in people working with Narcissus (Narjis) flowers and bulbs. Bulb handling causes dermatitis due to the presence of needle-shaped clusters of calcium oxalate. Dermatitis is a condition in which the skin becomes red, swollen, and sore, sometimes with small blisters, caused by direct irritation of the skin by an external agent or an allergenic reaction to it.Other allergic reactions exhibited are eyelids swelling, conjunctivitis, stuffy nose, difficult breathing, lesions with…show more content… Recovery is usually complete in a few hours without any specific intervention. In more severe cases involving ingestion of large quantities of bulbs activated charcoal, salts, and laxatives may be required, and for severe symptoms intravenous atropine and emetics or stomach pumping may be indicated. However, ingestion of large quantities accidentally is unusual because of a strong unpleasant taste. When narcissi were compared with a number of other plants not normally consumed by animals, narcissi were the most repellant, specifically N. pseudonarcissus. Consequently, Narcissus (Narjis) alkaloids have been used as repellents and may also discourage fungi, molds, and bacteria.On 1st May 2009, a number of schoolchildren fell ill at Gorseland Primary School in Martlesham Heath, Suffolk, England, after a Narcissus (Narjis) bulb was added to soup during a cookery