Juvenile Justice System

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Juvenile justice services are agencies who have a primary task of appropriately managing, supervising, and treating youth who are in the juvenile justice system. Throughout history, children who were under the age of ten were accused and tried as adults. In early nineteenth century changing the outlook on youth offenders took place in the United States. An example of this is The House of Refuge in New York, which first opened in the year 1824, this house was the first of juvenile reform in the United States. This was the first trail attempt to house juvenile offenders in a separate facility, which we would give other states the option to follow suit. (MDJS). Because of emerging research and science regarding child development in the eighteenth…show more content…
For example, in the year 1889 the first juvenile court was established in Cook County in Illinois. Within thirty years of that, effectively all of the states had established juvenile courts. The difference between adult courts and juvenile courts are the “civil”, and “criminal” nature. In a civil proceeding the courts could emphasize on the youth, rather than the suspected offense, with a range of options pushed towards the rehabilitation of the youth. Until the late 1960’s, youth in the juvenile court system did not have legal rights in the constitution; this all changed with the US Supreme Court’s decision. The Supreme Court concluded that juvenile courts were civil, but juveniles are the focus to the proceedings which continue to face a potential loss of liberty. With that being said, the Supreme Court made it mandatory that all youth offenders that are involved in the juvenile court and facing possible imprisonment have constitutional rights. On the basis of the In re Gault decision, US Congress passed the Juvenile Delinquency and Prevention Act. This act held states accountable to develop plans designed to address and restrict juvenile delinquency in the community, if they wanted to receive federal funding. As a result, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, which is the U.S. Department of Justice was…show more content…
Juvenile delinquency is the participation of illegal behavior by minors. Juvenile Delinquency has been an ongoing problem for society for many decades. Even though juvenile delinquency has been a problem for many years the rates have gone down tremendously. Based on a statistic from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, “the juvenile arrest rate for all offenses reached its highest level in the last two decades in 1996, and then declined 43% by 2010, there were 4,857 arrests for every 100,000 youths ages 10 through 17 in the United States” (OJJDP). As 1.3 million juvenile delinquency cases thrown out by courts in 2010 (NIJ). With that being said, children are more likely to commit offenses at an early age, and that makes them prone to continue as a young adult. Research shows that there are two types of delinquents, those with the severity of antisocial behavior which begins in early childhood, and those which coincide with entry into

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